Global Innovation Index 2012

Global Innovation Index 2012 measures capabilities of 141 countries including the Western Balkan countries

INSEAD, a leading graduate business school with three campuses on two continents, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO, a specialized agency of the United Nations), on Tuesday 3 July released their Global Innovation Index 2012 (GII 2012), ranking six EU countries and Switzerland among the top 10. Upon invitation of its developers and for a second consecutive year, the GII was thoroughly assessed and revised by researchers of the JRC's Institute for the Protection and the Security of the Citizen (IPSC). Its recommendations contributed to the conceptual and statistical refinement of the index.

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Global Innovation Index logo© INSEAD, 2011


The 2012 GII model includes 141 countries that represent 94.9% of the world's population and 99.4% of the world's GDP.

The top 10 include Switzerland, Sweden, Singapore, Finland, United Kingdom, Netherlands, Denmark, Hong Kong (SAR, China), Ireland, and the United States.

Most of the old EU member states (EU-15) are in the top 30 of the GII ranking. However, some of the new member states, namely Malta (16th), Estonia (19th), Slovenia (26th), Czech Republic (27th), Cyprus (28th), Latvia and Hungary (30th) have improved their ranking and are now ahead of Portugal (35th), Italy (36th), and Greece (66th). All EU 27 countries are represented in the ranking.



The 2012 GII is the simple average of two sub-indices, the Innovation Input Sub-Index (assessing Institutions, Human capital & research, Infrastructure, Market sophistication, and Business sophistication), and the Innovation Output Sub-Index (assessing actual evidence of innovation outputs, namely Technological outputs and Creative outputs). The GII is described by 84 indicators of three different types: quantitative data (62 indicators), composite indicators (16 indicators), and survey data (6 indicators).

JRC scientists made recommendations to the GII developers related to the conceptual and statistical coherence of the GII, its structure, and the impact of key modelling assumptions on its scores and ranks. Overall, the JRC analysis suggests that the multi-level structure of the GII is statistically coherent, with a balanced structure which is not dominated by any pillar or sub-pillar. Country rankings are in most cases fairly robust according to methodological assumptions (estimation of missing data, weighting, and aggregation formula).

Related Links

Document type
  • Report


Publication Year


Geographical focus
  • International; Other
  • Western Balkans
Scientifc field / Thematic focus
  • Cross-thematic/Interdisciplinary

Entry created by Elke Dall on July 15, 2012
Modified on July 15, 2012