The Berlin Process 2014-2018

This is the third report produced by Cooperation and Development Institute in the framework of its "Berlin Process Series". Started in 2014 in Berlin, the Berlin process has provided a unique contribution to WB6 regional cooperation, to investments in regional connectivity infrastructure, and to the reforms engaged by WB6. 

More than complementing the Enlargement, the Berlin Process de-facto uses its achievements. As such it is an outcome-oriented process focused on two main pillars: connectivity and regional political cooperation. Its endeavors do not aim specifically the establishment of the rule of law, adoption of acquis communautaire, institution building or market economies in the Balkans.

The Berlin Process builds up on the achievements of the Enlargement and on the advancement of reforms engaged by WB6 countries. The success of Connectivity Agenda or WB6 regional cooperation depends on the progress of each country in fulfilling the Copenhagen criteria and on sustaining the reform path. The quality of infrastructure projects submitted to IFI for financing reflects the degree of development of institutions built in the Balkans during the last 20 years. Their successful implementation is an indicator of the state of the rule of law applied in this region. The achievements in regional cooperation reflect the maturity and the alignment of Balkan politicians and policy-makers with the EU policies.

Being an outcome-oriented process, the Berlin Process focuses the attention of Enlargement actors on the tangible results of reforms and on how they impact the situation on the ground. Its success indicators go beyond normative and institutional achievements, to reflect the situation faced by enterprises or citizen in the Western Balkans. Placed in this unique position, the Berlin process allows for thorough debates on the performance of WB6 on their way EU. Those debates have already contributed to streamline the Enlargement approach, as illustrated by the Enlargement Strategy 2018.

The last WB6 Summit in Trieste in July 2017 confirmed the EU perspective of the WB6 countries. The new 2018 Enlargement Strategy has set the year 2025 as a target date for full accession of first WB6 countries. Connectivity projects have broken ground and at least four regional cooperation institutions have been established or are in the process of being set up. Western Balkans Six has become the dimension of reference for business decisions regarding investments or market strategies. On their road to full EU membership, the Berlin Process dynamics is a major contributor of physically linking WB6 through roads and energy systems, as wells as through joint institutions and human relations.

This report is part of the the Berlin Process Series, an initiative started by Cooperation and Development Institute (CDI), in November 2015, in Tirana, and supported by Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Konrad Adenauer Foundation and Hanns Seidel Foundation. It has taken the following form:

• Research on the Berlin process and its priority areas: Berlin process being a thinly documented process, CDI has contributed to create a body of knowledge, as well as to gather in one place major documents referring to it;

• Monitoring reports on advancement of Albania in BP agenda on issues such as youth, migration and connectivity. Since 2014, CDI works together with national stakeholders in identifying and documenting the policy measures, progress and challenges faced by the Albanian government during their implementation;

• Annual conference “Albania in the Berlin process”, followed by the conference proceedings. This conference takes stock of the progress achieved during the previous year in implementing commitments taken under BP agenda, and serves as a platform for debates and exchange of experience among different stakeholders. CDI has grouped the publications under “Berlin Process Series”, available at CDI website. 

Document type
  • Report


Publication Year


Ardian Hackaj; Krisela Hackaj
Geographical focus
  • Albania
  • Western Balkans
Scientifc field / Thematic focus
  • Cross-thematic/Interdisciplinary

Entry created by Krisela Hackaj on March 20, 2018
Modified on March 20, 2018