wiiw Policy Notes and Reports #47: Net Migration and its Skill Composition in the Western Balkan Countries between 2010 and 2019: Results from a Cohort Approach

In this analysis, wiiw applied the newly developed ‘cohort approach’ to the six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) for the period 2010-2019 to shed light on the total extent and skill composition of net migration, differentiating between four educational levels: Low (primary or lower secondary education), Medium-general (upper secondary general education), Medium-VET (upper secondary vocational education and training), and High (tertiary education). Our results show that during the period analysed all six countries experience net emigration.

However, in terms of magnitude and particular age pattern these movements differ across countries. Net migration is particularly prevalent among the young. A high youth unemployment rate, family reunification and education abroad are key drivers behind this pattern. A further breakdown of net migration by highest level of education shows that net emigration in the region occurs mainly among the medium- and low-educated, particularly among those in their early to mid-20s and early 30s. There is evidence of brain drain in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo. In Albania, net emigration of the highly educated is substantial and accounts for almost 40% of the total estimated cumulative outflow.
Brain drain in Albania and Kosovo is highest among recent university graduates. Importantly, and contrary to widespread perception, there is evidence of brain gain in some Western Balkan countries, namely in Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia. The key drivers of this are students, who return in large numbers to their home countries after graduating from tertiary education abroad. In Serbia and Montenegro immigration of highly skilled workers is also important in this context.

More information and source: https://wiiw.ac.at/evidence-of-brain-gain-for-some-western-balkan-countries-n-489.html

wiiw has just published a detailed study, commissioned by the European Training Foundation (ETF), which develops the ‘cohort approach’ to estimate the extent and the skill composition of net migration – the difference between immigration and emigration ‒ in the six Western Balkan countries (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia) between 2010 and 2019. To account for the importance of vocational education and training in the region, the study differentiates between four educational levels: Low (primary or lower secondary education), Med-GEN (medium-general – upper secondary general education), Med-VET (medium-VET ‒ upper secondary vocational education and training), and High (tertiary education).

The main findings are as follows.

  • During the period of analysis, all six Western Balkan countries experience net emigration. However, the extent of these movements differs across countries.
  • The young are the most mobile and the most likely to emigrate.
  • A further breakdown by the highest level of education shows that net emigration occurs mainly among the medium- and low-educated.
  • Net migration flows among the highly educated are generally lower but more differentiated across the Western Balkan countries, with evidence of brain drain in Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo but brain gain in Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia.
  • The international mobility of local and foreign students is a key driving force behind the extent of the brain drain or brain gain found in the six countries surveyed.

for more details: https://wiiw.ac.at/evidence-of-brain-gain-for-some-western-balkan-countries-n-489.html

Citation

Leitner, S. (2021). Net Migration and its Skill Composition in the Western Balkan Countries between 2010 and 2019: Results from a Cohort Approach. wiiw. Policy Notes and Policy Report 47.

 

Document type
  • Discussion paper
  • Practical Advice/Guide
  • Report
  • Research paper
Language

English

Publication Year

2021

Country
Austria
Author(s)/Editor(s)
Leitner, Sandra
Source
wiiw
Geographical focus
  • Albania
  • Austria
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Kosovo*
  • Montenegro
  • Serbia
  • WBC
Scientifc field / Thematic focus
  • Cross-thematic/Interdisciplinary
  • General
  • Social Sciences

Entry created by Elke Dall on December 6, 2021
Modified on December 6, 2021